typhoon 1915

typhoon 1915

Some tin roofs were torn by the winds, but overall wind damage in the district was minor. [156] Fireboats pumped sewage and debris from the city out into Galveston Harbor. However, measurements of high water marks by the Army Corps of Engineers at the intersection of 20th and Strand Streets indicated the maximum water level reached 11.965 ft (3.647 m) above the mean low tide height, suggesting water levels above those during the 1900 hurricane. [67] Crops across half of Texas were damaged by the storm as it pressed inland, including the loss of all open cotton and most late-season corn and rice. The great granite structure erected after the calamity of 1900, grimly met and conquered the raging seas of the gulf and hurled them back defiantly when they came.

[53] Initial reports in The Houston Post drew comparisons between the strengths and paths of the 1915 hurricane and the 1900 hurricane. [101], A peak wind of 80 mph (130 km/h) was estimated in Houston at 8 a.m. CST on August 17 (13:00 UTC). [67] Several interior cities reported damage from the hurricane. Dwellings in some communities were either destroyed or damaged. [110][115] A church and warehouse in Elgin were destroyed.

[47] Found marine wreckage was later associated with the ship, confirming its sinking. [8] Telephone lines in the island's interior were downed. A boat run aground onto the Mississippi levee wharf, The landmark Presbyterian Church on Lafayette Square collapsed, as did St. Anna's Episcopal Church on, "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT", "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)", "Forecasts And Warnings For September 1915", 10.1175/1520-0493(1916)44<519:FAWS>2.0.CO;2, "Rainfall Associated WIth Hurricanes (And Other Tropical Disturbances)", "Weather Department Unable to Tell Direction of Hurricane", "Raw Tropical Storm/Hurricane Observations for Hurricane Six of 1915", "Tropical Hurricane Moving Toward Yucatan Channel", "The Tropical Hurricane Of September 20, 1915, In Louisiana", 10.1175/1520-0493(1915)43<456:TTHOSI>2.0.CO;2, "10 Known Dead And Million Property Loss In Big Storm", "Category 4 catastrophe: Remembering the unnamed hurricane of 1915", http://files.usgwarchives.net/la/plaquemines/history/hurc1915.txt, The Hurricane of Sept. 29th, 1915, and Subsequent Heavy Rainfalls. Some railways were partially inundated, including the Kingston to Montego Bay railway between Cambridge and Appleton. reanalysis of the official hurricane database, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, 10.1175/1520-0493(1915)43<405:TTSOA>2.0.CO;2, 10.1175/1520-0493(1915)43<413:RAFA>2.0.CO;2, "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT", "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)", "Weather Records Were Broken at Houston Monday", "Hurricane Passes, Miami Will Escape Storm This Time", "Hurricane Passes, Miami Will Escape Storm This Time", p. 1, "Hurricane Passes; Miami Will Escape", p.2, "Thousands Left Island City for Safety of High Lands", "Hurricane at Galveston; Water Goes Over Sea Wall", "Hurricane Has Struck the Mainland / No Communication With Galveston", "Galveston Sea Wall Awash; Storm Rages", p 7, "Convicts Brought From Morgan's Point Camp", "Port Aransas Seeking Mainland for Safety", "Half Population Leaves Port Arthur for Inland", "Galveston Hit by Hurricane at Early Hour", "Big Storm at Galveston and Other Coast Points", "Hurricane is 140 Miles Off Mouth of the Mississippi", "Extension of the Meteorological Service in the West Indies", "Hard Hit by Hurricane Which Sweeps the West Indies", "One Cayman Islander Killed During the Storm", "Observer at Key West Establishes Hurricane Station on Cuba Isle", "History of Hurricanes and Floods in Jamaica", "Convincing Evidence of Marowjine Sinking", "Two Sailors Washed Overboard from the Battleship Louisiana", "E23) What is the complete list of U.S. continental landfalling hurricanes? An estimated 250 people took shelter in the building, though a majority left when the building was first unroofed. [163] Due to the damage wrought to West End Park in Houston, the Houston Ball Club transferred their remaining games in the 1915 season in San Antonio. A telegraph report states the situation: Whole country between Poydras and Buras inundated. [19] The total damage to infrastructure in areas surrounding New Orleans was estimated at US$6.5 million. [69], Texas City was hard-hit by the hurricane, sustaining $400,000 in damage and the loss of 18 lives. A northeast curve soon followed, resulting in a track into the Ozarks and Ohio River Valley; the storm transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on August 20 over the Ozarks and dissipated over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence three days later. [80][74]:2 The USAT McClellan was torn adrift from pier 12 and grounded upon Pelican Island. [13], Upon making landfall, onshore anemometers documented winds stronger than had been recorded in any previous hurricane along the United States Gulf Coast. Widespread damage was also documented throughout its path across the Caribbean Sea and the interior United States. The wharves themselves generally sustained minor damage and all were repairable.

[159] Ferguson later called for relief supplies and funds to be sent to Austin, primarily for communities outside Houston and Galveston. [61][15]:7 Grand Isle was flooded under 6 ft (1.8 m) of water. While the newly completed Galveston Seawallmitigated a similar-scale disaster for Galveston, numerous fatalities occurred along unprotected stretches of the Te… [29] Ten people were killed after the schooner Curaçao bound for Grand Cayman with lumber sank just offshore. [111] The hurricane wrought extensive damage to Brazos County, with strong winds destroying the chimneys and windows of numerous homes; the ruined façades resulted in widespread flooding of homes.

[8] Two marines on the battleship USS New Hampshire (BB-25) en route for Veracruz, Mexico, were washed overboard and drowned off the Florida coast. By the afternoon hours, low-lying lands south of New Orleans and east towards Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, as well as areas adjacent to Lake Pontchartrain, were inundated by the quickly rising storm surge. Though it was not as deadly as the 1893 Chenier Caminanda hurricane, this hurricane was the deadliest Louisiana hurricane until Betsy 50 years later. [8] Throughout the island, there were 42 fatalities outside of Galveston. Conditions estimated worse than ever before. [6], On November 26, a typhoon struck Palau, killing two people.[2]. [12] Rail service between coastal cities and Houston remained in special overnight operation during the evacuation process. [107] Damage to schools across the Houston area amounted to $15,000. [140]:2 Along Manchester Avenue, homes and mills were destroyed by the fast-moving currents.

Roseau was impacted by a power outage as telephone and electric poles were downed. [81] Two interurban cars laid at rest at the destroyed drawbridge, partially submerged underwater. [85][86] Most crops in Matagorda County withstood the storm, though 25–35 percent of the rice crop was lost, including Blue Rose, Honduras, and Japan varieties. [74]:1 At least 90 percent of the 250 homes on Galveston Island outside the seawall's protection were destroyed.

Only one house remained standing in Leeville, Louisiana; similar destruction occurred between Golden Meadow, Louisiana and Cut Off, Louisiana, where 100 houses were demolished. [79], Rough seas were reported throughout the Texas coast ahead of the storm on August 16, with waves cresting 20 ft (6.1 m) high. [122], Heavy rainfall from the weakening remnants also damaged crops and property between August 18–21 in eastern parts of the Ozark Plateau in Missouri.

In 1906, there were 24 tropical cyclones in the western Pacific Ocean.

[151], Following the hurricane's passage, the director of Jamaica's railways, Sydney Couper, established headquarters at Annotto Bay to oversee extensive railway repairs.

[14] Many oil derricks in the area were destroyed. Galveston was largely protected by its seawall, but the strong waves caused extensive beach erosion that undermined 200 outlying homes. In 1916, there were 23 tropical cyclones in the western Pacific Ocean. [160] The Texas Adjutant General, John A. McCalmont, prepared blankets, cots, and tents for shipment to Houston and Galveston for storm refugees. In Louisville, five-minute sustained winds peaked at 48 mph (77 km/h). [141] Forest Park was flooded, submerging the golf course and endangering the St. Louis Zoo. The bodies of seven people were recovered in the city. [26] Other islands in the Lesser Antilles reported "some damage to small shipping", as summarized by the Monthly Weather Review.

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