doi: 10.1016/0922-338X(94)90237-2, Ronney, P. D., Kraigsley, A., and Finkel, S. E. (2004). Organic acid toxicity, tolerance, and production in Escherichia coli biorefining applications. doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2017.01.001, Johns, N. I., Blazejewski, T., Gomes, A. L., and Wang, H. H. (2016). 5, 670–673. Biotechnol. The “traditional” plant biotechnology sector centers around plant breeding and ultimately choosing the characteristics that are beneficial, and it least considers the ecology of plant–microbial association. Therefore, these associations are the result of a co-evolution process that leads to the adaptation and specialization, allowing the occupation of different niches, by reducing biotic and abiotic stress or exchanging growth factors and signaling.
103, 1111–1124. J. Ferment. Schink, B. Food Sci. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: applications, microbes and future research needs. Microbiol. Such interactive mechanisms are essential to prevent the subsequent damage to the soil texture.
Consequently, such foods provide a suitable habitat for microbial interaction. 95, 2176–2185.
And Burkholderia sp. Antioxidant peptides have been found in soybean milk fermented by LAB and these can effectively eliminate free radicals (Liu et al., 2017). 69, 37–44. Food and other feed stuffs are often contaminated by such mycotoxins as aflatoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin, and trichothecene leading to toxic reactions upon subsequent uptake. These interactions can take either in an antagonistic or synergistic fashion depending on their growth-enhancing or inhibiting nature (International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods [ICMSF], 1996). doi: 10.1016/S1389-1723(03)80194-9, Chikindas, M. L., Weeks, R., Drider, D., Chistyakov, V. A., and Dicks, L. M. (2018). (2007).
Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11130-015-0489-2, Garrigues, C., Johansen, E., and Crittenden, R. (2013). 51, 903–912. Mixed consortia in bioprocesses: role of microbial interactions. 10, 208–220. Chem. (2015). Biotechnol. In general, the sequence of utilization of nutrients by microorganisms is such that first carbohydrates and amino acids are utilized followed by utilization of more complex nutrients. However, according to our definitions, it appears that the sharing of public goods, and particularly extracellular enzymes, is also used in synthetic co-cultures to engineer a DOL. In this content, defintion and types of microbial interaction are explained. Microbial interactions occur by the transference of molecular and genetic information, and many mechanisms can be involved in this exchange, such as secondary metabolites, siderophores, quorum sensing system, biofilm formation, and cellular transduction signaling, among others. These microsymbionts provide to the insects with some growth factors (that are lacking in insects) and some essential amino acids. This provides a possible base for modeling of microbial community to harness specific useful outcomes in terms of metabolites and other essential elements. Microbiol.
Food Microbiol. Extensive exometabolome analysis reveals extended overflow metabolism in various microorganisms. (2020). Enhanced biofilm formation and increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and bacterial invasion are caused by synergistic interactions in multispecies biofilms.
LAB are endowed with a broad range of functions that could be multiplied with artificial co-cultures, particularly in food applications. This cooperative trait relies on the production of a cell-wall protein (FLO1) which enables all cells expressing FLO1 to adhere together (Smukalla et al., 2008). Biotechnol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1995.tb03131.x, Coda, R., Rizzello, C. G., Pinto, D., and Gobbetti, M. (2012). Reducing the use of chemicals of this nature would be of direct benefit to the environment. Specifically, in Swiss-type cheeses, propionic acid bacteria make use of lactic acid produced by LAB which acts as a starter (Mounier et al., 2005). 46, 1063–1070. 70, 269–274. Biotechnol. bulgaricus and showed that dependency between two LAB strains is essential for the interactions to be successful. For example, in milk, Lactobacillus acidophilus produces conjugated linoleic acid, an anti-carcinogenic agent (Macouzet et al., 2009). Dis. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05840.x, Currie, C. R., Scott, J. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0608373104, Ibrahim, A. S., Gebremariam, T., Liu, M., Chamilos, G., Kontoyiannis, D., Mink, R., et al.
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