china gini coefficient

china gini coefficient

It shows that the Gini coefficient, a widely used measure of income inequality, has risen by 15 points since 1990 to 50 (a reading of zero would indicate that everyone has the same income, while a reading of 100 would mean that the richest person gets all … Adjusting Regional Income by … In 1980, the Gini coefficient in urban China was as low as 0.16, but the nationwide Gini coefficient was around 0.3, higher than other socialist economies at that time (28, 29). In one respect, both China and the U.S. are similar: Both have witnessed an extreme rise in income inequality since the 1970s, according to a new paper … The data is categorized under China Premium Database’s Household Survey – Table CN.HD: Resident Income Distribution. First, the surveys can differ in many respects, including whether they use income or consumption expenditure as the living standard indicator. Comparative method is widely used in the paper. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. This is because the Gini coefficient measures relative, not absolute, wealth. She is now Professor in economics in Shijiazhuang University of Economics. Jin Han has two bachelor degrees in Economics and Geological Science from Hebei College of Geology. The data from the National Bureau of Statistics shows that the Gini within the urban area was only 0.23 in 1988 and rose to 0.319 in 2002, still much below 0.4. 2003 - 2019 | Yearly | NA | National Bureau of Statistics. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Differences among countries in these respects may bias comparisons of distribution. China’s Gini Coefficient data remains active status in CEIC and is reported by National Bureau of Statistics. The Chart of the Week tells the story. Statistical Concept and Methodology: The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. As the graph below shows, over the past 25 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 43.70 in 2010 and a minimum value of 32.20 in 1990. This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients.The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income). Qingxia Zhao is currently a lecturer in statistics in Shijiazhuang University of Economics, and has Master degree in statistics from the Renmin University of China. Furthermore it is possible for the Gini coefficient of a developing country to rise (due to increasing inequality of income) while the number of people in absolute poverty decreases. Although China's GDP has become the world's second largest, China's long-term economic growth with high speed and long-lasting “efficiency first” policy guidance, has brought China into a complicated situation, therein serious inequality exists in China and it has become one of the most serious problems in China nowadays. The value for GINI index (World Bank estimate) in China was 38.60 as of 2015. Mengnan Zhang is a first year graduate in Population, Resources and Environment Economics in Shijiazhuang University of Economics, her contribution for the paper, who took a lot of time to list the reference of Chinese literature and make it an English draft, and clear up most of the data. The Gini coefficient is a well-understood measure of inequality (16). The Gini index provides a convenient summary measure of the degree of inequality. The data reached an all-time high of 0.491 NA in 2008 and a record low of 0.462 NA in 2015. Definition: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. Unlimited access tailored to your data needs, Instant access to full history data in excel, Includes all below related indicators: 1 series. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. As the graph below shows, over the past 25 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 43.70 in 2010 and a minimum value of 32.20 in 1990. This article is part of a special issue entitled “Proceedings of the 1st Czech-China Scientific Conference 2015”. HJ made an outline of the paper, and carried out the data information and its calculation and utilisation, then worked out the paper and made all the affiliates done. This paper focuses on China's inequality issues in the context of the world, especially on comparison between China and the European countries, concerning of our common pursuit for socialist values. Income distribution and Gini indexes for high-income economies are calculated directly from the Luxembourg Income Study database, using an estimation method consistent with that applied for developing countries. Gini Coefficient and Percentage of Total Income of National Population by Income Quintile are utilized as main indicators, and the two results just mutually verify each other. Thus, country-level Gini coefficients cannot be aggregated into regional or global Gini's, although a Gini coefficient can be computed for the aggregate. Second, households differ in size (number of members) and in the extent of income sharing among members. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Another limitation of the Gini coefficient is that it is not additive across groups, i.e. It is possible for two different Lorenz curves to give rise to the same Gini coefficient. Distribution of family income - Gini index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. In addition, the definitions of income used differ more often among surveys. Where the original data from the household survey were available, they have been used to calculate the income or consumption shares by quintile. How High Is Income Inequality in China Today? Her main research aim is to promote sustainable development in the poor rural areas in China, focusing on promoting Rural Urban, Agricultural Industrial and Inter Regional Balanced Sustainable Development in China. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. Otherwise, shares have been estimated from the best available grouped data. Data on the distribution of income or consumption come from nationally representative household surveys. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. Limitations and Exceptions: Gini coefficients are not unique. For further details on the estimation method for low- and middle-income economies, see Ravallion and Chen (1996). China’s Gini Coefficient data is updated yearly, averaging 0.474 NA from Dec 2003 to 2019, with 17 observations. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of 50. the total Gini of a society is not equal to the sum of the Gini's for its sub-groups. The data reached an all-time high of 0.491 NA in 2008 and a record low of 0.462 NA in 2015. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldban. Finally, we make a ladder target of the Gini coefficient standards for Chinese government to keep constraint by oneself. Wherever possible, consumption has been used rather than income. The distribution of income is typically more unequal than the distribution of consumption. To see China's inequality more globally, Graph 3.2 shows that China's Gini coefficient is slightly low and close to the Latin American average Gini coefficient (0.4864), but higher than several other continents. South Africa is the top country by GINI index in the world. She also has a Ph.D. in economics from the Renmin University of China. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. And individuals differ in age and consumption needs. There is no data available for your selected dates. China’s Gini Coefficient data was reported at 0.465 NA in 2019. The Gini coefficient is an important tool for analyzing income or wealth distribution within a country or region, but it should not be mistaken for an absolute measurement of income or wealth. Consumption is usually a much better welfare indicator, particularly in developing countries. China’s Gini Coefficient data was reported at 0.465 NA in Dec 2019. Two sources of non-comparability should be noted for distributions of income in particular. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. This records a decrease from the previous number of 0.468 NA for Dec 2018. Survey year is the year in which the underlying household survey data were collected or, when the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the year in which most of the data were collected. No adjustment has been made for spatial differences in cost of living within countries, because the data needed for such calculations are generally unavailable. The distribution data have been adjusted for household size, providing a more consistent measure of per capita income or consumption. Forecast: GDP PPP Per Capita (PPP Intl $), Total Trade of Goods & Services: % of Nominal GDP (%), Nominal Residential Property Price Index (2010=100), Nominal Residential Property Price Index Growth (%), Real Residential Property Price Index (2010=100), Real Residential Property Price Index Growth (%), Consolidated Fiscal Balance: % of GDP (%), Forecast: Government Expenditure (RMB bn), Consumer Confidence: Net Balance (% Point), Motor Vehicle Sales: Commercial Cars (Unit), Motor Vehicle Sales: Passenger Cars (Unit), CPI: Food and Non Alcoholic Beverage Change (%), Forecast: Consumer Price Index Growth (%), Exports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product (USD th), Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product (USD th), Forecast: Current Account Balance (USD bn), Foreign Portfolio Investment: % of GDP (%), Foreign Portfolio Investment: Equity Securities (USD mn), Foreign Portfolio Investment: Debt Securities (USD mn), Net International Investment Position (USD mn), Credit to Private Non-Financial Sector (USD bn), Debt Service Ratio: Private Non-Financial Sector (%), Foreign Exchange Reserves: Months of Import (NA), Natural Gas Production: OPEC: Marketed Production (Cub m mn), Business Confidence: Net Balance (% Point), Exports: Telecommunication Equipment (USD th), Imports: Telecommunication Equipment (USD th), Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (2004=100), Bankcard Consumer Confidence Index: China UnionPay, Business Sales of Key Circulation Enterprise, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Clothing, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Educational, Cultural and Recreational Service, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Food, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Household Facility, Appliance and Service, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Medical Care, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Miscellaneous and Service, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Residence, Cash Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural: Transport and Telecom, Catering Enterprise: Financial Data: Domestic Funded, Catering Enterprise: Financial Data: Foreign Funded, Catering Enterprise: Financial Data: Hong Kong SAR (China), Macau SAR (China) & Taiwan Funded (HMT), Catering Enterprise: Financial Data: State Control, Commodity Retail Sales of Key Retail Enterprise(5000 Enterprises), Consumer Survey: National Bureau of Statistics, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Clothing, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Educational, Cultural and Recreational Service, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Food, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Household Facility, Appliance and Service, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Medical Care, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Miscellaneous and Service, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Residence, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: City: Transport and Telecom, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Food: Prefecture Level Region, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Rural, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Rural: Food, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Urban, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Urban: Food, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Urban: Quarterly, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Prefecture Level Region, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Rural, Consumption Expenditure per Capita: Urban, Consumption Structure by Income Level: Rural, Consumption Structure by Income Level: Urban, Disposable Income per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Urban, Disposable Income per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Urban: Quarterly, Disposable Income per Capita: Prefecture Level Region, Durable Consumer Goods per Rural Household, Durable Consumer Goods per Urban Household, Income and Expenditure by Income Level: Rural, Income and Expenditure by Income Level: Urban, Net Income per Capita: Rural: County Level Region, No of Enterprise: Wholesale and Retail: Prefecture Level City, No of Enterprise: Wholesale and Retail: Prefecture Level Region, No of Household Surveyed: Rural: By Income Level, No of Household Surveyed: Urban: By Income Level, Purchase, Sales and Inventory: Large Retail Enterprise, Purchases of Consumer Goods per Capita: Urban, Purchases of Consumer Goods per Household: Urban, Residential Area per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Rural, Residential Area per Capita: Prefecture Level City: Urban, Retail Enterprise: Computer, Software and Assistant Appliance Retail, Retail Enterprise: Culture, Sport Appliance and Equipment Retail, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Chain Stores, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Department Store, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Domestic Funded, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Foreign Funded, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Hong Kong SAR (China), Macau SAR (China) & Taiwan Funded (HMT), Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Other Retail Outlet, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Specialized Store, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: State Control, Retail Enterprise: Financial Data: Supermarket, Retail Enterprise: Food, Beverage and Tobacco Retail, Retail Enterprise: Hardware, Furniture and Decoration Material Retail, Retail Enterprise: Medicine and Medical Appliance Retail, Retail Enterprise: Motor Vehicle, Motorcycle, Fuel and Parts Retail, Retail Enterprise: Textile, Garment and Daily Article Retail, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Above Designated Size Enterprise: by Commodity, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Accommodation & Catering Trade: Prefecture Level Region, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Accommodation and Catering Trade, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Catering Trade: Prefecture Level City, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Catering Trade: Prefecture Level City: Monthly, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Catering Trade: Prefecture Level Region, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: County Level Region, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: National Statistical Bureau, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Other Trade, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level City, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level City: Accommodation & Catering Trade, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level City: Accommodation & Catering Trade: Monthly, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level City: Monthly, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level City: Wholesale & Retail Trade, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level City: Wholesale & Retail Trade: Monthly, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Prefecture Level Region, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Provincial and Municipal Statistical Bureau, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Wholesale & Retail Trade: Prefecture Level City, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Wholesale & Retail Trade: Prefecture Level City: Monthly, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Wholesale & Retail Trade: Prefecture Level Region, Retail Sales of Consumer Goods: Wholesale and Retail Trade, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Computer and Digital Product, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Cultural and Entertainment Article, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Electrical Appliance, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Food, Beverage and Medicine, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Home Accessory and Manufacturing, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Computer and Digital Product, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Cultural and Entertainment Article, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Electrical Appliance, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Food, Beverage and Medicine, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Home Accessory and Manufacturing, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Others, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Personal Care and Daily Use Good, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: MoM: Textile, Clothes and Footwear, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Personal Care and Daily Use Good, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: Textile, Clothes and Footwear, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Computer and Digital Product, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Cultural and Entertainment Article, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Electrical Appliance, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Food, Beverage and Medicine, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Home Accessory and Manufacturing, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Others, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Personal Care and Daily Use Good, Taobao and Tmall Online Sales: YoY: Textile, Clothes and Footwear, Urban Depositor Survey: The People's Bank of China, Wholesale and Retail Enterprise: Above Designated Size: Financial Data, Wholesale and Retail Enterprise: Above Designated Size: Sales Revenue By Province, Wholesale and Retail Inventory: Above Designated Size Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Inventory: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Govt Control Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Purchase: Above Designated Size Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Purchase: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Govt Control Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Govt Control Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Govt Control Enterprise: Retail, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Govt Control Enterprise: Wholesale, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Retail, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise: Wholesale, Wholesale and Retail Sales: All Size of Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Below Designated Size Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Commodity Sales: Above Designated Size Enterprise, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Prefecture Level City, Wholesale and Retail Sales: Prefecture Level Region, Wholesale Enterprise: Coal and Related Product, Wholesale Enterprise: Financial Data: Domestic Funded, Wholesale Enterprise: Financial Data: Foreign Funded, Wholesale Enterprise: Financial Data: Hong Kong SAR (China), Macau SAR (China) & Taiwan Funded (HMT), Wholesale Enterprise: Financial Data: State Control, Wholesale Enterprise: Food, Beverage and Tobacco, Wholesale Enterprise: Machinery, Hardware and Electronic Product, Wholesale Enterprise: Medicines and Medical Appliances, Wholesale Enterprise: Motor Vehicle, Motorcycle and Parts, Wholesale Enterprise: Petroleum and Related Product, Wholesale Enterprise: Rice, Flour and Edible Oil, Wholesale Enterprise: Textile, Garment and Daily Article, Wholesale, Retail and Catering Enterprise: Above Designated Size: No of Enterprise.

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